Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis which means the analysis of the mind. He created a famous psychological theory of the development of the conscience and believed there were three parts of the mind. This includes the Id, ego and super-ego.
The Id is the unconscious, instinctive, animalistic part of our personalities. It consists of our basic physical and emotional needs. These include ”eros”(the sexual instinct) and ”Thanatos” (the drive for aggression and selfishness). An example of something coming out of only the Id is ”I am going to kill that woman/man!!!”
The Ego is only responsible for mediating between the impulsive nature of the Id and the controlling force of the super-ego. It is the rational faculty (the self or I).
Finally there is the Super-ego, it is developed in early childhood through socialisation and it listens to authority. This part of the conscience is an internalised voice of authority figures such as parents. It can make us feel guilt or shame if we go against it through threatening and commanding. An example would be if you want to steal due to the Id but instead say ”I can’t steal this because it’s breaking the law and I will go to jail!”
For me Freud’s theory is not convincing, even though there is a valid argument which is the same one legalistic ethics gives. Legalistic ethics is an ethical system which always follows rules. However his theory is unconvincing as statistics clearly show murder,violence rape and more. This is possibly because people don’t realise if they aren’t conforming and therefore don’t feel guilt or shame. Freud’s perspectives also try to indicate that humans don’t have free will!
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